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Treatment of prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is a malignant neoplasm that develops in the tissues of the prostate gland as a result of cell transformation. It is found in one of fifteen men over 40 years old. Mortality from prostate cancer takes second place among all oncological diseases. Several years may pass from the moment the first cancer cell appears to the oncology symptoms development. For this reason, the patient is often seen by an oncologist with a neglected, overgrown tumor that is difficult to cure.
It is impossible to answer the question of why prostate cancer develops. The causes of the pathology have not been determined precisely yet. However, there are risk factors that increase the likelihood of tumor developing:
- Vasectomy. Cancer is more often diagnosed in men who have undergone sterilization.
- Age. In the age range of 50-60 years, men face natural changes and hormonal imbalances. Since prostate cancer is a hormone-dependent tumor, deviations from normal testosterone levels increase the risk of cancer.
- Hormonal imbalance. Among them, taking medications, diseases of the endocrine and genitourinary systems.
- Environment. Regular exposure to sunlight and poor environmental conditions contribute to the development of genitourinary system cancer.
Symptoms of prostate cancer
The manifestations of the disease are similar to the symptoms of an infection of the genitourinary system:
- Difficulty urinating (at first it is difficult to start urinating or stop the flow of urine, later the entire act of urination requires great effort).
- Pain or burning feeling during urination.
- Frequent urination, especially at night.
- Weak urine flow.
- Problems with erection.
- Presence of blood in urine or semen.
- Frequent pain in the lower back, in the pelvis or thigh.
Stages of prostate cancer
In total, there are four stages of prostate cancer:
- Stage 1 is characterized by the small size of the tumor, the absence of involvement of the lymph nodes in the pathological process. As a rule, at this stage prostate cancer is detected during the treatment of another disease of the gland.
- Stage 2 prostate cancer means that the tumor has increased in size. It can be felt during a digital rectal examination. In this case, the symptoms of the disease are often absent. Therefore, it is important to regularly undergo a preventive examination.
- Stage 3 of the disease is characterized by the spreading of the tumor beyond the prostate. Cancer cells are found in the pelvic lymph nodes and neighboring organs. At this point, the patient usually feels discomfort, urination is impaired due to gland deformation, pain in the perineum appears.
- Stage 4 means that cancer has spread to distant organs and lymph nodes. Metastases can be found in bones, lungs, liver, etc.
Prostate cancer diagnostics
At the initial stages, it is difficult to suspect prostate cancer, as the signs of the disease are nonspecific and mild. In this regard, a correct and timely diagnosis making is the key to a resultant treatment. The following diagnostic methods are used to detect a tumor and determine the stage of its development:
- PSA blood test. In a healthy man, the indicator does not exceed 4 nanograms per milliliter (ng/ml). In one of the four cases of cancer, the level of prostate-specific antigens ranges from 4-10 ng/ml, in every second â over 10. However, in some patients, PSA remains within normal limits.
- Palpation of the prostate. The procedure is performed through the rectum. Neoplasms and other irregularities found during the study are the basis for the application of the additional research methods.
- Prostate biopsy. It is a mandatory study, which is carried out with the suspected tumor of the prostate gland. Its results provide a reliable answer to the question of the presence or absence of cancer. During the procedure, tissue samples are taken from the prostate and are sent to the laboratory for a detailed study. A biopsy takes 15-20 minutes. With using of local anesthetics, it is absolutely painless.
- Transrectal ultrasound. When conducting a transrectal ultrasound examination, sound waves are used to obtain an image of the prostate gland. The procedure involves the introduction of a small probe into the patientâs rectum. This diagnostic method is quick and painless. In addition, transrectal ultrasound is often used during a biopsy in order to insert the needle correctly and accurately capture the material.
Therapy of prostate cancer is carried out comprehensively. Depending on the tumor type, stage of the disease, and the age of a man, the treatment includes one or more methods:
- Surgery. Radical prostatectomy and transurethral resection are used. The task of radical prostatectomy is to cure a patient by removing the prostate gland and surrounding tissues. Transurethral resection aims to improve the quality of life. Surgery is the best way to treat prostate cancer, as the operation will completely remove the tumor if neoplasia has not penetrated the capsule of the prostate gland.
- Radiation therapy. This is a non-invasive treatment method that can destroy cancer cells. The course of procedures includes irradiation by external sources or by placing radioactive capsules inside the prostate.
- Hormone therapy. By suppressing the production of androgens by the testes, growth suppression and regression of the neoplasm are achieved. Direct indications include the presence of metastases, a high risk of relapse, contraindications for surgical intervention and radiation. Hormone therapy is effective in the late stages of cancer.
The best place for prostate cancer treatment
If you need help with prostate cancer, you can receive treatment abroad. Booking Health service will help you find the best specialists and clinics in Germany. With the assistance of the company, you can easily undergo prostate cancer treatment in Germany at low prices. On the website, you can read reviews of patients who have already undergone prostate cancer treatment in Germany with the help of Booking Health.