The formation of non-inflammatory lesions (comedones or blackheads) and inflammatory lesions (papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts), more or less significant, is caused by acne, a condition of the pilosebaceous follicle.
The T of the face, an aesthetic place with a possible impact on the affected person’s quality of life, is where it most frequently manifests itself. It shows itself by alternating between times of remission and phases of exacerbation, often following the summer season.
Table of Contents
What Contributes to Acne?
There are many causes of acne, such as increased sebum production, inflammation, bacterial colonization of the pilosebaceous follicles, and changes in their keratinization.
Choose Your Cosmetic Products Carefully
You might need to switch up some of your regular cosmetics if you are suffering from acne. All skincare and cosmetics must be oil-free. So, select anti-acne product kits with non-comedogenic designation (i.e., not conducive to clogging of pores).
However, in some individuals, even these products have the potential to exacerbate acne; thus, it is advised not to use an excessive amount of products. It might be challenging to apply foundation evenly during the first week of treatment since the skin might be red or flaky, especially if topical tretinoin or benzoyl peroxide is used.
Always take your makeup off before going to bed!
How Many Types of Acne Exist?
There are 4 distinct forms of acne that are distinguished based on the frequency of the lesions:
- Papulo-pustular (the most common variety, with a majority of papules and pustules);
- Mild or comedogenic (with a predominance of comedones);
- 10% of nodules are cystic, containing subcutaneous nodules and cysts that can scar;
- Conglobata (the most severe form of acne, with nodule-cystic lesions, which lasts up to 30 years, with the production of extensive scarring).
How Are Acne Diagnosed?
The dermatologist is in charge of determining the acne’s cause. It comprises a process through which the distinctive symptoms of this condition are interpreted to place them in a particular condition that differs depending on:
- the form of acne (comedonal, papulopustular, nodule cystic, nodular, conglobate, mixed),
- and the degree of each form of acne’s severity (mild, moderate, severe) to any underlying systemic diseases (in women), such as micropolycystic ovary present or altered ovarian or adrenal hormone metabolism (PCO).
Treatment and Prevention
Acne can be treated, preventing lasting scarring, if the right medication is chosen promptly and tailored to the patient’s needs and acne. Topical therapies, such as creams, gels, and ointments based on anti-inflammatories, antibiotics, keratolytics, retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, and azelaic acid, are used in the treatment of mild forms of acne.
These goods can all be used separately or in combination with one another. Therefore, the choice of local therapy must be made specifically considering the individual’s skin “type,” tolerance to various products, and other factors.
In addition to local therapies for the most severe cases of acne, which frequently have inflammatory lesions like papulopustular forms, oral medications, particularly antibiotics like tetracyclines or macrolides, are also used. The presence of allergies and/or contraindications in the subject must also be ruled out in this situation.
Other Useful Medicines That Can Treat Acne Successfully
An anti-androgen drug (cyproterone acetate) or oral estrogen-progestins can be used to treat the forms of acne in females associated with hormonal dysfunctions (hyperandrogenism) or unresponsive to conventional treatments, with papules and nodules located primarily in the lower part of the face, neck, and perioral area.
Systemic therapy with isotretinoin may be administered for cases with nodulocystic or conglobate acne that are unresponsive to “traditional” medications or pose a substantial risk of permanent scarring.
A medicine generated from vitamin A is called isotretinoin. Isotretinoin is categorically forbidden during pregnancy due to its undesirable side effects, including the potential to cause fetal abnormalities (it is, therefore, necessary for patients to take pregnancy tests during the entire duration of therapy and up to 1 month after using it).
Regular blood tests must be performed before and throughout treatment to ensure success. The typical course of therapy lasts 16 to 20 weeks, and it is contraindicated during the summer because sun exposure is not allowed (as some products pose a risk of serious phototoxic reactions).